Chapter 15 Reading Notes

April 29, 2010 at 12:30 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • News releases that are written for the ear are known as audio news releases or ANRs. ANRs are usually straight and to the point. An ANR may be about 160 spoken words instead of 400 written words like in a print release.

Page 390 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Another approach to non-written press releases are video news releases or VNRs. Like an ANR, this is formatted for immediate release. A VNR has the advantage of being broadcasted all over the world with minimum changes from the local station. However, VNRs can be quite costly. A 90-second VNR can cost anywhere from $20,000 to $50,000.

Page 396 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • A Public relations professional working for nonprofit companies will ofter use public service announcements or PSAs to deliver messages that serve the public interest. Unlike a radio or audio news release (ANR), a public service announcement is typically submitted in various lengths.
  1. 2 Lines = 10 seconds (about 25 words)
  2. 5 lines = 20 seconds (about 45 words)
  3. 8 line = 30 seconds (about 65 words)
  4. 16 lines = 60 seconds (about 125 words)

Page 393 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 14 Reading Notes

April 29, 2010 at 12:02 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • A news release is also called a press release. This concept has been around since Ivy Lee issued a news release back in 1906 for the Pennsylvania Railroad. Since that time, it has been the most commonly used public relations tactic.

Page 367 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Lisa Barbadora, director of public relations and marketing for Schubert Communication, shares the following tips for creating “news-centered” releases:
  1. Use short, succinct headlines and subheads to highlight main points and pique interest. They should not simply be a repeat of the information in the lead-in paragraph.
  2. Do not use generic words such as “the leading provider” or “world-class” to position your company. Be specific, such as “with annual revenues of.”
  3. Do not describe products using phrases such as “unique” or “total solution.” use specific terms or examples to demonstrate the product’s distinctiveness.
  4. Use descriptive and creative words to grab an editor’s attention, but make sure they are accurate and not exaggerated.
  5. Do not highlight the name of your company or product in the headline of a news release if it is not highly recognized. If you are not a house hold name, focus on the news instead.
  6. Tell the news. Focus on how how your announcement afects your industry and lead with that rather than overtly promoting your product or company.
  7. Critique your writing by asking yourself, “Who cares?” Why should readers be interested in this information?
  8. Do not throw everything into a release. Better to break your news into several releases if material is lengthy.
  9. Do not use lame quotes. Write like someone is actually talking- eliminate the corporatese that editors love to ignore. Speak with pizzazz to increase your chances of being published.
  10. Target your writing. Create two different tailored releases that will go out to different types of media rather than a general release that is not of great interest to either group.
  11. Look for creative way to tie your announcement in with current news or trends.
  12. Write simply. Use contractions, write in active voice, be direct, avoid paired words such as “clear and simple,” and incorporate common action-oriented phrases to generate excitement. Sentences should be no longer that 34 words.
  13. Follow the Associated Press Style-book and specific publications’ editorial standards for dates, technical terms, abbreviations, punctuation spellings, capitalization, and so on.
  14. Do not use metaphors unless they are used to paint a clearer picture for the reader.
  15. Do not overdo it. It is important to write colorfully, to focus on small specific details, to include descriptions of people, places, and events- but do not write poetry when you want press.
  16. Do not be formulaic in your news release writing. Not every release must start with the name of the company or product. Break out of the mold to attract media attention.
  17. Do not expect editors to print your entire release. Important information should be contained in the first two paragraphs.
  18. Make it clear how your announcement is relevant for the editors’ readers.

Page 367-368 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 11 Reading Notes

April 27, 2010 at 7:19 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • Public relations practitioners realize that their audience consists of a variety of groups with diverse cultural, ethnic, religious, and economic attributes. Sometimes the interests of these separate groups will be in unison but many times the interests of these groups will be in conflict with one another.

Page 276 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • The demographic makeup of the United States is constantly changing. At the current moment citizens of our country are divided into three major age groups.
  1. Youth and young adults
  2. Baby boomers (Americans born between 1946 and 1964)
  3. Seniors (Americans 65 years or older)

Page 279-281 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • When scanning the intended audience it is important to recognize what they do with their time. The Census Bureau calculated that American spent an average of 3,518 house using the meda in 2007. Here is an breakdown of the average of the hours spent with media:
  1. 1,555 hours watching television
  2. 974 hours listening to the radio
  3. 195 using the Internet
  4. 175 hours reading a newspaper
  5. 122 hours reading magazines
  6. 106 hours reading books
  7. 86 hours playing video games

Page 294 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 10 Reading Notes

April 27, 2010 at 6:30 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • In her book “Crisis Communications: A Casebook Approach” Kathleen Fearn-Banks states, “A Crisis is a major occurrence with a potentially negative outcome afecting the organization, company, or industry, as well as its publics, products, services, or good name.”

Page 262 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • In a study by the Institute for Crisis Management it found that only 14 percent of business crises were unexpected. The other 86 percent of crises were called “smoldering” crises. In these crises the organizations were aware of a potential business disruption long before the public found out. The study also found that business mismanagement caused 78 percent of the crises.

Page 262 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Weber Shandwick public relations with KRC REsearh foud the the top three reasons for company crisis were as follows:
  1. Financial irregularities
  2. Unethical behavior
  3. Executive misconduct

Page 262 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • In the mist of a crisis public relation practitioners should follow the following checklist:
  1. Put the public first.
  2. Take responsibility.  An organization should take responsibility for solving the problem.
  3. Be honest. Do not obscure facts and try to mislead the public.
  4. Never say, “No comment.”
  5. Designate a single spokesperson
  6. Set up a central information center.
  7. Provide a constant flow of information. When information is withheld, the cover-up become the story.
  8. Be familiar with media needs and deadlines.
  9. Be accessible.
  10. Monitor news coverage and telephone inquiries.
  11. Communicate with key publics.

Page 263 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 9 Reading Notes

April 27, 2010 at 5:39 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • The textbook lists two common definitions of public opinion:
  1. Public opinion is the sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals.
  2. Public opinion is a collection of views held by persons interested in the subject.

Page 214 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Sociologists describe opinion leaders as:
  1. Highly interested in a subject or issue
  2. Better informed on an issue than the average person
  3. Avid consumers of mass media
  4. Early adopters of new ideas
  5. Good organizers who can get other people to take action

Page 216 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • A survey by the Roper Organization found that only 10 to 12 percent of the general public are opinion leader. These individuals fit the profile of:
  1. Being active in the community
  2. Having a college degree
  3. Earning relatively high incomes
  4. Regularly reading newspapers and magazines
  5. Actively participating in recreational activities
  6. Showing environmental concern by recycling

Page 217 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • In public relations, persuasion is used to:
  1. Change or neutralize hostile opinions
  2. Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes
  3. Conserve favorable opinions

Page 224 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • A number of factors are required for persuasive communication. These factors are:
  1. Audience analysis
  2. Source credibility
  3. Appeal to self-interest
  4. Clarity of message
  5. Timing and context
  6. Audience participation
  7. Suggestions for action
  8. Content and structure of messages
  9. Persuasive speaking

Page 226 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 8 Reading Notes

April 27, 2010 at 4:50 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • The E in the R.A.C.E. acronym developed by John Marston stands for Evaluation. This helps us understand if the audience was reached and what the effect was if they were.

Page 8-9 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • After an idea or message is communicated a public relations practitioner should evaluate their performance based on this checklist:
  1. Was the activity or program adequately planned?
  2. Did the recipients of the message understand it?
  3. How could the program stratery have been more effective?
  4. were all primary and secondary audiences reached?
  5. was the desired organizational objective achieved?
  6. what unforeseen circumstances affected the sucess of the program or activity?
  7. Did the program or activity fall within the budget set for it?
  8. What steps can be taken to improve the success of similar future activities?

Page 194-195 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Evaluation goals for public relations programs can be grouped into three measurement levels
  1. Basic- Measuring targeted audiences, impressions, and media placements.
  2. Intermediate- Measuring retention, comprehension, awareness, and reception.
  3. Advanced- Measuring behavior change, attitude change, and opinion change.

Page 196 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Message Exposure can be monitored several ways
  1. Media impressions
  2. Hits on the internet
  3. Advertising equivalency
  4. Systematic tracking
  5. Requests and 800 numbers
  6. Return on investment
  7. Audience attendance

Page 197-204 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • The measurement of supplemental activities can be evaluated several ways
  1. Communication audits
  2. Pilot tests and split messages
  3. Meeting and event attendance
  4. Newsletter readership

Page 208-210 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 7 Reading Notes

April 27, 2010 at 4:17 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • In the R.A.C.E. acronym the C stands for communication. This acronym was developed by John Marston in his book “The Nature of Public Relations.”

Page 8-9 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Modern communication models include five elements.
  1. Sender/Source (encoder)
  2. Message
  3. Channel
  4. Receiver (Decoder)
  5. Feedback from the receiver to the sender

Page 173 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Always aim for clarity with sending a message.
  1. Use symbols, acronyms, and slogans
  2. Avoid jargon
  3. Avoid cliches and hype words
  4. Avoid euphemisms
  5. Always avoid discriminatory language

Page 180-181 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • The five-stage adoption process helps one  understand ways an individual can accept a new idea or product
  1. Awareness
  2. Interest
  3. Evaluation
  4. Trial
  5. Adoption

Page 185 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 6 Reading Notes

March 6, 2010 at 2:01 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • After research  in completed, the next step is to create a campaign to accomplish what was indicated in the research. This process is known as program planning.

Page 167 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • A popular approach to planning is using a process called management by objective (MBO). In the book “Public Relations Management by Objectives” Norman R. Nager and T. Harrell Allen discuss 9 steps involving MBO.
  1. Client/employer objectives
  2. Audience/publics
  3. Audience objectives
  4. Media channels
  5. Media channel objectives
  6. Sources and questions
  7. Communication strategies
  8. Essence of the message
  9. Nonverbal support

Page 152 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • The Eight basic elements of public relations planning
  1. Situation
  2. Objectives
  3. Audience
  4. Strategy
  5. Tactics
  6. Calendar/timeline
  7. Budget
  8. Evaluation

Page 155 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Chapter 5 notes

March 5, 2010 at 10:37 am (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, , )

  • Before research is performed it is important to know these facts
  1. What may be the problem
  2. What kind of information is needed
  3. How the results of the research will be used
  4. The publics that should be addressed
  5. If the company needs to do the research from within or hire an outsider
  6. How the research will be analyzed, reported, or applied
  7. When the results will be needed
  8. The total cost of the research

Page 128 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Research is used to
  1. Achieve credibility with management
  2. Define audiences and segment publics
  3. Formulate strategy
  4. Test messages
  5. Help management keep in touch
  6. Prevent Crises
  7. Monitor the competition
  8. Sway public opinion
  9. Generate publicity
  10. Measure Success

Page 128-130 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Qualitative Research is looking into what individuals may value, how they behave, and how they make decisions. Some examples of qualitative research are
  1. Content analysis
  2. Interviews
  3. Focus groups
  4. Copy Testing
  5. Ethnographic observation and role playing

Page 148 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Quantitative Research- Research that is concerned with numbers using scientific sampling methods. So examples of quantitative research are
  1. Polls
  2. Surveys

Page 139 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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Ch. 4 Notes- Public Relations Departments and Firms

February 23, 2010 at 2:20 pm (Comm 2322, Reading Notes) (, )

  • The public relations departments of today’s Fortune 500 are actually usually not referred to as public relations. Instead, companies use names such as “corporate communications” or “communications” to describe these department.  Companies believe that today’s departments go beyond traditional public relations roles. These roles maybe considered “employee communications, shareholder communications, annual reports, consumer relations, branding, reputaion management, and corporate philanthropy.” Consultant Alfred Geduldig believes, “The term public relations had suffered from repeated derogatory usage, causing companies to move away from the term. He also thought that the term corporate communications was a sign that public relations people were doing many more things in a company than in the past, reflecting a integration of communication services.”

Pg. 102 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Public relations firms act independent from companies and operate for their own benefit and the companies who hire them. “Big or small, each form gives cunsel and performs tactical services required to carry out an agreed-on program. The firm may poerate as an adjunct to an organization’s public relations department or, if no department exists, conduct the entire effort.”

Pg. 110 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • This is a list of the variety of services a public relations firm can provide
  1. Marketing communications
  2. Executive Speech training
  3. Research and evaluation
  4. Crisis communication
  5. Media analysis
  6. Community relations
  7. Events management
  8. Public affairs
  9. Branding and corporate reputation
  10. Financial relations

Pg. 112-113 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

  • Advantages public relations firms can offer
  1. Objectivity
  2. A variety of skills and expertise
  3. Extensive resources
  4. International jobs
  5. Offices throughout the country
  6. Special problem-solving skills
  7. Credibility
  • Disadvantages of companies hiring public relation firms
  1. Superficial grasp of a client’s unique problems
  2. Lack of full-time commitment
  3. Need for prolonged briefing period
  4. Resentment by internal staff
  5. Need for strong direction by top management
  6. Need for full information and confidence
  7. Costs

Pg. 120-122 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics by Wilcox and Cameron

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